Growth: relationship between standing height and lung volume changes
Body proportions change from birth to the end of the adolescent growth spurt (ref. 1). On this account conventional linear regression equations for lung volumes, even after logarithmic transformation, are not satisfactory for the age range from early childhood to early adulthood.
In Europe, the prediction equations used most often are probably those of Zapletal, and in the United States of America those of Polgar (ref. 2). Neither is quite satisfactory over the entire 6-18 yr age range, which can be demonstrated by findings in 1189 Dutch boys and girls. In both boys and girls predicted values are systematically too high, and somewhat too low at about the start of the adolescent growth spurt with either of these popular sets of prediction equations. The trend cannot be remedied by modifying the constants in the respective equations; it is due to the fact that only standing height is taken into account in these models. It would seem that in one way or another account should also be taken of age or sexual maturity (ref. 2).
Ref. 1 - Changing relationship between height and volume
- Engström I, Karlberg J, Karlberg P. Change in the vital capacity/height relationship during the age period 12-20 years (abstract). Bull Europ Physiopathol Respir 1983; 19: 19P-20P.
- Schrader PC, Quanjer PhH, van Zomeren BC, Wise ME. Changes in the FEV1-height relationship during pubertal growth. Bull Europ Physiopathol Respir 1984; 20: 381-388.
- DeGroodt EG, Quanjer PhH, Wise ME, van Zomeren BC. Changing relationships between stature and lung volumes during puberty. Respir Physiol 1986; 65: 139-153.
- Borsboom GJJM, van Pelt W, Quanjer PhH. Pubertal growth curves of ventilatory function; relationship with childhood respiratory symptoms. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993; 147: 372-378.
- Rosenthal M, Bain SH, Cramer D, Helms P, Denison D, Bush A, Warner JO. Lung function in white children aged 4-19 years. I. Spirometry. Thorax 1993; 48: 794-802.
- Connett GJ, Quak SH, Wong ML, Lee BW. Lung function reference values in Singaporean children aged 6-18 years. Thorax 1994; 49: 901-905.
- Zapletal A, Paul T, Samanek M. Die Bedeutung heutiger Methoden der Lungenfunktionsdiagnostik zur Feststellung einer Obstruktion der Atemwege bei Kindern und Jugendlichen. Z Erkrank Atm-Org 1977; 149: 343-371.
- Polgar G, Promadhat V. Pulmonary function testing in children:
techniques and standards. Philadelphia, Saunders, 1971.