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Tobacco consumption

The consumption of tobacco affects spirometric indices in a number of ways:

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Smoking cessation is associated with a small increase in the FEV1 and with an annual rate of decline in FEV1 as occurs in non-smokers (ref. 4).


Ref. 1 - Exposure to tobacco smoke in childhood
1 Tager IB, Weiss ST, Munoz A, Rosner B, Speizer FE. Longitudinal study of the effects of maternal smoking on pulmonary function in children. N Engl J Med 1983; 309: 699-703.
2 Tager IB, Munoz A, Rosner B, Weiss S, Varey V. Effect of cigarette smoking on the pulmonary function of children and adolescents. Am Rev Respir Dis 1985; 131: 752-759.
3 Lebowitz MD, Holberg CJ, Knudson RJ, Burrows B. Longitudinal study of pulmonary function development in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Development of pulmonary function. Am Rev Respir Dis 1987; 136: 69-75.
4 Tager IB, Segal MR, Speizer FE, Weiss ST. The natural history of forced expiratory volumes. Effects of smoking and respiratory symptoms. Am Rev Respir Dis 1988; 138: 837-849.
5 Young S, LeSouëf PN, Geelhoed GC, Stick SM, Turner KJ, Landau LI. The influence of a family history of asthma and parental smoking on airway responsiveness in early infancy. N Engl J Med 1991; 324: 1168-1173.
6 Lebowitz MD, Sherrill D, Holberg CJ. Effects of passive smoking on lung growth in children. Pediatr Pulmonol 1992; 12: 37-42.
7 Tager IB, Ngo I, Hanrahan JP. Maternal smoking during pregnancy: effects on lung function during the first 18 months of life. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995; 152: 977-983.
8 Samet JM, Lange P. Longitudinal studies of active and passive smoking. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996; 154: S257-S265.
9 Wang X, Wypij D, Gold DR, Speizer FE, Ware JH, Ferris BG Jr, et al. Effects of smoking on lung function in adolescent boys and girls. N Engl J Med 1996; 335: 931-937.
10 Gold DR, Wang X, Wypij D, Speizer FE, Ware JH, Dockery DW. Effects of cigarette smoking on lung function in adolescent boys and girls. N Engl J Med 1996; 335: 931-937.
11 Gilliland FD, Berhane K, McConnell R, Gauderman WJ, Vora H, Rappaport EB, Avol E, Peters JM. Maternal smoking during pregnancy, environmental tobacco smoke exposure and childhood lung function. Thorax 2000;55:271–276.
12 Nuhoglu C, Gurul M, Nuhoglu Y, Karatoprak N, Sonmez EO, Yavrucu S, Ozguner A. Effects of passive smoking on lung function in children. Pediatr Int. 2003; 45: 426-428.
13 Moshammer H, Hoek G, Luttmann-Gibson H, Neuberger MA, Antova T, Gehring U, Hruba F, Pattenden S, Rudnai P, Slachtova H, Zlotkowska R, Fletcher T. Parental smoking and lung function in children. An international study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006; 173: 1255-1263.
14 Hayatbakhsh MR, Sadasivam S, Mamun AA, Najman JM, WilliamsGM, O’Callaghan MJ. Maternal smoking during and after pregnancy and lung function in early adulthood: a prospective study. Thorax 2009; 64: 810-814.
   
Ref. 2 - Smoking and plateau phase in lung function
1 Tager IB, Segal MR, Speizer FE, Weiss ST. The natural history of forced expiratory volumes,. Effects of smoking and respiratory symptoms. Am Rev Respir Dis 1988; 138: 837-849.
2 Tager IB, Munoz A, Rosner B, Weiss S, Varey V. Effect of cigarette smoking on the pulmonary function of children and adolescents. Am Rev Respir Dis 1985; 131: 752-759.
3 Lebowitz MD, Holberg CJ, Knudson RJ, Burrows B. Longitudinal study of pulmonary function development in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Development of pulmonary function. Am Rev Respir Dis 1987; 136: 69-75.
   
Ref. 3 - Smoking and accelerated decline in lung function
1 Comstock GW, Brownlow WJ, Stone RW, Sartwell PE. Cigarette smoking and changes in respiratory findings. Arch Environ Health 1970; 21: 50-57.
2 Sharp JT, Paul O, McKean H, Best WR. A longitudinal study of bronchitic symptoms and spirometry in a middle-aged male industrial population. Am Rev Respir Dis 1973; 108: 1066-1077.
3 Fletcher CM, Peto R, Tinker CM, Speizer FE. The natural history of chronic bronchitis and emphysema. An eight-year study of early chronic obstructive lung disease in working men in London. Oxford, Oxford University Press 1976.
4 Fletcher CM, Peto R. The natural history of chronic airflow obstruction. BMJ 1977; 1: 1645-1648.
5 Kauffmann F, Querleux E, Drouet D, Lellouch J, Brille D. Twelve year FEV1 changes and smoking habits among 556 workers in the Paris area. Bull Eur Physiopathol Resp 1979; 15: 723-737.
6 Bosse R, Sparrow D, Garvey AJ, Costa PT, Weiss ST, Rowe JW. Cigarette smoking, aging, and decline in pulmonary function: a longitudinal study. Arch Environ Health 1980; 35: 247-252.
7 Van der Lende R, Kok TJ, Peset Reig R, Quanjer PhH, Schouten JP, Orie NGM. Decreases in VC and FEV1 with time: indicators for effects of smoking and air pollution. Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir 1981; 17: 775-792.
8 Clément J, van de Woestijne KP. Rapidly decreasing forced expiratory volume in one second or vital capacity anddevelopment of chronic airflow limitation. Am Rev Respir Dis 1982; 125: 553-558.
9 Camilli AE, Burrows B, Knudson RJ, Lyle SK, Lebowitz MD. Longitudinal changes in forced expiratory volume in one second in adults. (Effects of smoking and smoking cessation). Am Rev Respir Dis 1987; 135: 794-799.
10 Tager IB, Segal MR, Speizer FE, Weiss ST. The natural history of forced expiratory volumes,. Effects of smoking and respiratory symptoms. Am Rev Respir Dis 1988; 138: 837-849.
11 Xu X, Weiss ST, Rijcken B, Schouten JP. Smoking, changes in smoking habits, and rate of decline in FEV1: new insights into gender differences. Eur Respir J 1994; 7: 1056-1061.
   
Ref. 4 - Smoking cessation and lung function
1 Bosse R, Sparrow D, Rose CL, Weiss ST. Longitudinal effect of age and smoking cessation on pulmonary function. Am Rev Respir Dis 1981; 123: 378-381.
2 Tashkin DP, Clark VA, Coulson AH, Simmons M, Bourque LB, Reems C, et al. The UCLA population studies of chronic obstructive respiratory disease. VIII. Effects of smoking cessation on lung function: a prospective study of a free-living population. Am Rev Respir Dis 1984; 130: 707-715.
3 Camilli AE, Burrows B, Knudson RJ, Lyle SK, Lebowitz MD. Longitudinal changes in forced expiratory volume in one second in adults. (Effects of smoking and smoking cessation). Am Rev Respir Dis 1987; 135: 794-799.
4 Xu X, Weiss ST, Rijcken B, Schouten JP. Smoking, changes in smoking habits, and rate of decline in FEV1: new insights into gender differences. Eur Respir J 1994; 7: 1056-1061.
5 Anthonisen NR, Connett JE, Kiley JP, Altose MD, Bailey WC, Buist AS, et al. Effects of smoking intervention and the use of an inhaled anticholinergic bronchodilator on the rate of decline of FEV1: the Lung Health Study. JAMA 1994; 272: 1497-1505.
6 Burchfiel CM, Marcus EB, Curb JD, MacLean CJ, Vollmer WM, Johnson IR, et al. Effects of smoking and smoking cessation on longitudinal decline in pulmonary function. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995; 151: 1778-1785.
7 Scanlon PD, Connett JE, Waller LA, Altose MD, Bailey WC, Buist AS. Smoking cessation and lung function in mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The Lung Health Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000; 161(2 Pt 1): 381-390.
8 Pride N. Smoking cessation: effects on symptoms, spirometry and future trends in COPD. Thorax 2001; 56(Suppl 2): ii7–ii10.
9 Willemse BW, Postma DS, Timens W, ten Hacken NH. The impact of smoking cessation on respiratory symptoms, lung function, airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Eur Respir J 2004;23: 464-476.
10 Godtfredsen NS, Lam TH, Hansel TT, Leon ME, Gray N, Dresler C, Burns DM, Prescott E, Vestbo J. COPD-related morbidity and mortality after smoking cessation: status of the evidence. Eur Respir J 2008;32: 844-853.
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