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Validation of GLI-2012 prediction equations for spirometry, and software



The Quanjer GLI-2012 predicted values have been validated in 3 studies [1-3].


Two kinds of (free) software are available to generate predicted values according to the Quanjer GLI-2012 reference equations:

  1. Software for calculating predicted values for an individual
    This software is available as a desktop program for Windows systems, and in the form of an Excel spreadsheet.
  2. Software for transforming large datasets so that predicted values, lower limit of normal and z-scores are added to the data. This free software is similarly available as a desktop application for Windows systems, and as an Excel spreadsheet.

The software can be downloaded from

Implementing Quanjer GLI-2012 equations in software by manufacturers

In addition, spirometer manufacturers have implemented the GLI-2012 equations in their software, or are in the process of doing so. Information is to be found at


  1. Lum S, Bonner R, Kirkby J, Sonnappa S, Stocks J. S33 Validation of the GLI-2012 multi-ethnic spirometry reference equations in London school children. Thorax 2012; 67: A18 (
  2. Hall GL, Thompson BR, Stanojevic S, et al. The Global Lung Initiative 2012 reference values reflect contemporary Australasian spirometry. Respirology 2012;17:1150–1151. Manuscript
  3. Bonner R, Lum S, Stocks J, Kirkby J, Wade A, Sonnappa S. Applicability of the Global Lung Function spirometry equations in contemporary multi-ethnic children. Research letter accepted for publication in Am J Respir Crit Care Med.
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